Vanguard®DAMP
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Vanguard®damp

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glutination inhibition [HAI] titer ≥ 1:80). Protection against infectious agents involves a complex interplay between humoral immunity, cellular immunity, or a combination of both. The purpose of vaccination is to induce effector cells in both these arms of the immune system. During the process, long-term immunity in the form of memory T and B lymphocytes is produced. Memory cells and antibodies interact to provide protection to an animal challenged with the same pathogen at a later date. Depending on the vaccine and the disease, antibodies may be produced that provide complete protection from disease and prevent or reduce shedding. In other cases, antibodies may play a minor or ineffective role and protection from disease relies on systemic, local cellular immunity and/or local antibody production. The role of sustained serological titers in the prevention of disease has not been confirmed. In companion animals, immunological response to infection or vaccination has generally been evaluated by measuring the level of antibodies in serum and correlating these with protection or susceptibility. For the diseases caused by canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, 4,5 canine adenovirus and leptospirosis, 4 evaluation of antibody titers may be a valuable diagnostic indicator to determine when revaccination may be needed. For other diseases, a serological response has not been identified that correlates with protection. Practical knowledge of the disease, the vaccine and the patient, along with serologic test results when appropriate, is paramount in making the best recommendation for a vaccination protocol for a specific animal. The duration and character of the immune response to the viral antigens of Vanguard and/or Vanguard Plus were determined in a multi-center serology study involving 47 small animal veterinary clinics located in the United States (44) and Canada (3). Three hundred twenty-two male and female (intact and neutered) dogs of various ages, breeds, weights, lifestyles and time since last vaccination were enrolled in the study. Dogs were required to be healthy, greater than 2 years old with no history of disease due to CDV, CPV, CAV-1, CAV-2, or CPI and must not have been vaccinated for 12-48 months or longer. Additionally, dogs must have received at least a priming vaccination series approximately 2-7 weeks apart as a puppy and a booster vaccination approximately 8-16 months later. All previously administered vaccines were Vanguard products. A blood sample was collected from each dog and serum submitted to Cornell Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for determination of CDV (SN), CPV (HAI) titers, CAV-1 (SN), CAV-2 (SN), and CPI (SN). The samp
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